Incompatibility thesis mixed methods

It is also possible to conduct the interviews after the survey data have been collected or vice versa ; in that case, research activities are performed sequentially. We call two research components dependent if the implementation of the second component depends on the results of data analysis in the first component. Two research components are independent , if their implementation does not depend on the results of data analysis in the other component.

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It is also possible to let the interview questions depend upon the outcomes of the analysis of the questionnaire data or vice versa ; in that case, research activities are performed dependently. In our opinion, simultaneity and dependence are two separate dimensions. Simultaneity indicates whether data collection is done concurrent or sequentially. Dependence indicates whether the implementation of one component depends upon the results of data analysis of the other component.

It is conceivable that one simultaneously conducts interviews and collects questionnaire data concurrent , while allowing the analysis focus of the interviews to depend on what emerges from the survey data dependence. Using the outcomes of the first research component, the researcher decides what to do in the second component. Depending on the outcomes of the first research component, the researcher will do something else in the second component. If this is so, the research activities involved are said to be sequential-dependent, and any component preceded by another component should appropriately build on the previous component see sequential validity legitimation ; Johnson and Christensen ; Onwuegbuzie and Johnson Determining where the point of integration will be, and how the results will be integrated, is an important, if not the most important, decision in the design of mixed methods research.

Morse and Niehaus identify two possible points of integration: the results point of integration and the analytical point of integration. Most commonly, integration takes place in the results point of integration. At some point in writing down the results of the first component, the results of the second component are added and integrated. Other authors assume more than two possible points of integration.

Understanding research philosophy – A primer |

Teddlie and Tashakkori distinguish four different stages of an investigation: the conceptualization stage, the methodological experimental stage data collection , the analytical experimental stage data analysis , and the inferential stage. According to these authors, in all four stages, mixing is possible, and thus all four stages are potential points or integration.

However, the four possible points of integration used by Teddlie and Tashakkori are still too coarse to distinguish some types of mixing. It is at the point of integration that qualitative and quantitative components are integrated. Some primary ways that the components can be connected to each other are as follows:. More generally, one can consider mixing at any or all of the following research components: purposes, research questions, theoretical drive, methods, methodology, paradigm, data, analysis, and results.

One can also include mixing views of different researchers, participants, or stakeholders. Substantively, it can be useful to think of integration or mixing as comparing and bringing together two or more components on the basis of one or more of the purposes set out in the first section of this article. In the case of development, integration consists of an adjustment of an, often quantitative, for example, instrument or model or interpretation, based on qualitative assessments by members of the target group.

The power of mixed methods research is its ability to deal with diversity and divergence. In the literature, we find two kinds of strategies for dealing with divergent results.

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One possibility is to carry out further research Cook ; Greene and Hall Further research is not always necessary. The aim is to develop an overall explanation that fits both the sense and the anti-sense Bazeley and Kemp ; Mendlinger and Cwikel Alternatively, one can question the existence of the encountered divergence. Differences between results from different data sources could also be the result of properties of the methods involved, rather than reflect differences in reality Yanchar and Williams In general, the conclusions of the individual components can be subjected to an inference quality audit Teddlie and Tashakkori , in which the researcher investigates the strength of each of the divergent conclusions.

As already mentioned in Sect. Note, however, that not all types of typologies are equally suitable for all purposes. Although some of the current MM design typologies include more designs than others, none of the current typologies is fully exhaustive. Various typologies of mixed methods designs have been proposed. Our summary of these designs runs as follows:.

Understanding research philosophy – A primer

At each stage, one approach affects the formulation of the other, and multiple types of implementation processes can occur. We expect that many published MM designs will fall into the hybrid design type. Morse and Niehaus listed eight mixed methods designs in their book and suggested that authors create more complex combinations when needed.

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Our shorthand labels and descriptions adapted from Morse and Niehaus , p. Notice that Morse and Niehaus included four mixed methods designs the first four designs shown above and four multimethod designs the second set of four designs shown above in their typology. The reader can, therefore, see that the design notation also works quite well for multimethod research designs.

In addition, they assume that the core component should always be performed either concurrent with or before the supplemental component. The resulting mixed methods design matrix see Johnson and Christensen , p. The above set of nine designs assumed only one qualitative and one quantitative component. However, this simplistic assumption can be relaxed in practice, allowing the reader to construct more complex designs. The Morse notation system is very powerful. Something similar applies to the classification of the purposes of mixed methods research.

Of all purposes involved, then, which one should be the primary basis for the design? Or should the design be based upon all purposes included? And if so, how? The most frequently mentioned interactive approach to mixed methods research is the approach by Maxwell and Loomis The researcher should therefore regularly check during the research and continuing design process whether the components still fit together, and, if not, should adapt one or the other component to restore the fit between them. In an interactive approach, unlike the typological approach, design is viewed as an interactive process in which the components are continually compared during the research study to each other and adapted to each other.

Typological and interactive approaches to mixed methods research have been presented as mutually exclusive alternatives.

Advances in Mixed Methods Research – John W. Creswell, PhD - Keynote at the 2016 CAQD conference

In our view, however, they are not mutually exclusive. Some authors state that design typologies are particularly useful for beginning researchers and interactive approaches are suited for experienced researchers Creswell and Plano Clark This makes an interactive approach desirable, also for beginning researchers. We agree with Greene , who states that the value of the typological approach mainly lies in the different dimensions of mixed methods that result from its classifications.

In this article, the primary dimensions include purpose, theoretical drive, timing, point of integration, typological vs. Unfortunately, all of these dimensions are not reflected in any single design typology reviewed here. Emergent designs arise, for example, when the researcher discovers during the study that one of the components is inadequate Morse and Niehaus Some designs contain an emergent component by their nature.

Pros and Cons of Mixed Methods Research

Initiation, for example, is the further exploration of unexpected outcomes. Unexpected outcomes are by definition not foreseen, and therefore cannot be included in the design in advance. The question arises whether researchers should plan all these decisions beforehand, or whether they can make them during, and depending on the course of, the research process.

The answer to this question is twofold. On the other hand, developments during research execution will sometimes prompt the researcher to decide to add additional components. In general, the advice is to be prepared for the unexpected. When one is able to plan for emergence, one should not refrain from doing so. Next, mixed methods designs are characterized by their complexity. In the literature, simple and complex designs are distinguished in various ways. The primary message of this section is as follows: It is the responsibility of the researcher to create more complex designs when needed to answer his or her research question s.

For example, data might be collected both at the levels of schools and students, neighborhood and households, companies and employees, communities and inhabitants, or medical practices and patients Yin Integration of these data does not only involve the integration of qualitative and quantitative data, but also the integration of data originating from different sources and existing at different levels.

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This is an area in need of additional research. The fully-integrated mixed design is more complex because it contains multiple points of integration. As formulated by Teddlie and Tashakkori , p. In these designs, mixing occurs in an interactive manner at all stages of the study. Complexity, then, not only depends on the number of components, but also on the extent to which they depend on each other e. Many of our design dimensions ultimately refer to different ways in which the qualitative and quantitative research components are interdependent. Different purposes of mixing ultimately differ in the way one component relates to, and depends upon, the other component.

The dependence among components, which may or may not be present, has been summarized by Greene Of these two design categories, integrated designs are the more complex designs. The primary design dimensions explained above have been the focus of this article.

Or is the researcher not interested in substantive theory based on empirical data? Ideological drive: Will the study have an explicitly articulated ideological drive e. Combination of sampling methods: What specific quantitative sampling method s will be used?

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What specific qualitative sampling methods s will be used? How will these be combined or related? Bryant, A. Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: how is it done?