Working hypothesis research paper
Hypothesis is a knowledgeable guess. It is guessing the possible answers. You draw the prediction conclusion from the accuracy of events that follow afterwards. If the events that follow are not corresponding, the prediction does not become accurate. From the example a prediction maybe made that the percentage of women with obesity will increase by twenty percent by the end of the year. If the prediction is not accurate by that time it is considered null. Prediction is a pure guess work that has no facts to consider.
Predictions have only one chance to prove but hypothesis can remain a discussion for a long time.
It can take more than one person or one generation to prove. Predictions show of the future events but hypothesis are just guess work that are in the progress of research. Can be discussed and researched in a long time. Hypothesis will find out more about the two variables that are in hand.
What is a hypothesis?
They give what the researcher has in mind about the two variables. It is good to go through hypothesis examples of other authors because it helps you to develop your own writing skills. When you get exposed to different samples of hypothesis then by the end of the day you will have learnt how to present your hypothesis to best meet the recommended format.
Below are some of the ways in which you can be able to perfect your hypothesis. Why is the percentage of obese women more than that of men? This is a question that you ask yourself when you are interested in a topic, and you want to study it. Use both primary, secondary and tertiary scientific methods to do your background check of the disease and its courses. Find out why women get obese at a high rate.
Use books from the library and other sources. Go to the library and use online sources to know more about the question you have ask. Read magazines and newspapers related to the question. In this research, I found out the following questions to find out. This hypothesis will be the answers to certain questions that you formulated during your study and research. In experimental and correlational research , hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables. An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.
In this example, the independent variable is apple consumption — the assumed cause. Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project. Do students who attend more lectures get better exam results? Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic.
Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find. At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.
You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable.
How to Develop a Good Research Hypothesis - Enago Academy
There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable. If a first-year student starts attending more lectures , then their exam scores will improve.
In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables. The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their exam scores. If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them. One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner.
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Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. For example, many people skim Titles to find out what information is available on a subject. Others may read only titles and Abstracts.
Table of contents
Those wanting to go deeper may look at the Tables and Figures in the Results , and so on. The take home point here is that the scientific format helps to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper beyond title skimming , they will likely get the key results and conclusions. Top of page. Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title , Authors and Affiliation , Abstract , Introduction , Methods , Results , Discussion , Acknowledgments , and Literature Cited , which parallel the experimental process.
This is the system we will use. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section. The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order:. Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the section, and double spaced from the lines above and below.
Do not underline the section heading OR put a colon at the end. Subheadings: When your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation. Subheadings should be capitalized first letter in each word , left justified, and either bold italics OR underlined. Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the paper.
Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of your paper: the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the response measured, etc.
A majority of readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on words found in the title. The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important. The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the work. A general rule-of-thumb is that the title should contain the key words describing the work presented. Remember that the title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior, a poor title would be:.
It is very general, and could be referring to any of a number of mouse behaviors. A better title would be :. Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism. If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example.
Similarly, the above title could be restated as:. Strategy for Writing Title. Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph usually , the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence:. Whereas the Title can only make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper.
The length of your Abstract should be kept to about words maximum a typical standard length for journals. Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper i. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts.
Therefore, enough key information e. How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions.
Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense. Maximum length should be words, usually in a single paragraph. Strategy : Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper. To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper.
Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the paper.