Essay on psychology of learning

However, there is relatively little research into their emergent literacy. It is often cited that they show a pattern of strong code-related and poor meaning-focused skills. There is a problem with using these composites, as children with ASD show strengths and weaknesses within the code-related domain, where letter naming is good, but print concept knowledge PCK is impaired. PCK relates to knowledge of print function and conventions and the organisation of books.

In this essay, reasons for this discrepancy are explored. It is argued that weak central coherence in children with ASD can account for their ability to process local features such as letters but not global book features such as the front cover.

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This is exacerbated by adults who may find it challenging to engage these children in literacy activities, and therefore show an instructional bias towards the skills they already show aptitude and interest in. Based on this explanation, possible interventions are considered. These include systematic, explicit instructional techniques such as print referencing and task analysis, as well as interest development strategies to encourage motivation for looking at books. It is concluded that educational psychologists EPs should play a role in evaluating and promoting these strategies to improve PCK in children with ASD.

Society is currently living in a screen age. Interactive media devices are increasingly being used by young children, often independently, without the presence of a parent. Parental reasons for this focus on educational, entertainment and babysitting purposes. Firstly, it reduces the amount of parental linguistic input that a child receives in their early years, that is essential for language development. Secondly, features of parent-child interactions that drive language development cannot be replicated by interactive media use when children are alone including scaffolding techniques, promoting joint attention, providing gestural clues and providing a familiar voice.

Parents need to apply what is known about language development and be aware of their important role as the More Knowledgeable Other in interactive learning experiences before it is too late. Implications for Educational Psychology practice and potential areas for further research are also discussed. Researchers have found that young people have useful things to say about their education, and yet pupil participatory practices are not embedded in schools. Studies suggest that appropriate planning and a change of school ethos is key to their success. Research has also been conducted into how teachers engage pupils in giving feedback on teaching and learning.

Findings indicate that individual differences amongst teachers can impact on their engagement in participation, and resulting practices can vary in the degree to which they would be considered participatory. The limited research into democratic schools highlights promising outcomes for their pupils but the prospect of similar approaches working in mainstream schools raises a number of challenges. This essay concludes that engaging in effective pupil participatory practices in schools has the potential to result in a range of positive outcomes.

Learning Theories. Their Influence on Teaching Methods

Policy makers and schools need to consider the degree of decision-making or influence they want to give to pupils. They may also require more training and guidance to make participatory practices effective. Educational Psychologists are well placed to support this process both at a whole school and policy level. Teacher well-being is predominantly explored in terms of its deficits, due to reports of stress and burnout being highly prevalent across the teaching workforce. Teacher well-being and lack of is considered to have a small influence on student learning and achievement.

The research on mechanisms which underlie this influence mostly report indirect links, through teacher engagement, teacher student relationships TSRs and teacher quality. However, there are massive gaps in the literature, and concerns over methodology especially causality and generalisability , defining constructs teacher quality and weak links to student learning teacher engagement. Currently TSRs appear to be the most plausible mediator between well-being and student learning. EPs are in a good position to support teacher well-being and facilitate positive effects on student learning.

Helping to foster positive TSRs and school climates, promoting the use of supervision, and delivering stress management programmes may be particularly useful. Future research should focus on how teacher well-being can positively influence student learning.

By knowing what works, this may then aid interventions to help stressed teachers and develop positive environments for learning. Special Educational Needs SEN legislation has recently undergone the largest reform in over a decade. A greater emphasis has been placed on encouraging school staff and professionals to see beyond the observable behaviour and to give consideration to possible underpinning factors.

This paper will discuss this possibility, and with specific reference to speech and language difficulties, it will consider how through their five core functions educational psychologists can seek to maintain an interactionist perspective of undesirable behaviour.

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This assignment has been revised and published as an open access free to download for all article:. Cunningham, L. Maintaining an interactionist perspective of undesirable behaviour: What is the role of the Educational Psychologist? Educational Psychology Research and Practice, 2 1 , 49— Download article.


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There is considerable research attention given to psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents with a diagnosis of autism spectrum conditions ASC. This essay aims to consider one such comorbid diagnosis, that of oppositional defiant disorder ODD and question its value as an explanation of the behaviour of children and young people on the autism spectrum. Much of the existing research exploring the comorbidity of ASC and ODD comes from a neuropsychological perspective and is focused on validity and accurate measures.


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  • The research supports the diagnostic validity of ODD, however this essay will take a different perspective and consider the usefulness of a comorbid diagnosis of ODD for a child or young person with ASC and those supporting them. This argument will be placed in the context of some of the recognised core cognitive differences that are associated with a diagnosis of ASC, as well as potential wider contributing factors.

    Potential implications for educational psychologists will be considered throughout. Self-harm is a widespread issue amongst adolescents, which is often kept hidden from adults. When a young person is identified as self-harming, education professionals often refer them to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services for an assessment. This may be due to the prevailing perception of self-harm as a mental health problem that requires clinical treatment and management. However, as the majority of self-harm behaviour is kept hidden, this essay will argue that a reactive response is unlikely to be adequate in supporting adolescents who self-harm.

    Instead, it will be argued that self-harm may be better perceived as an emotional and behavioural difficulty that can be effectively supported by education professionals working in schools and colleges. Rather than perceiving self-harm as a mental health problem, and the responsibility of clinicians, self-harm needs to be understood as an adaptive strategy that enables adolescents to regulate their emotions and cope with the stress of everyday life.

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    This essay will demonstrate that adolescents who self-harm have fewer functional coping strategies and engage in self-harm as a way to alleviate negative emotions. By providing young people with culturally acceptable coping strategies, we may be able to help reduce the occurrence of self-harm behaviour. This is particularly pertinent for children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties SEBD as they have been identified as being the most difficult to include within mainstream settings.

    Over the past forty years there has been a shift in the discourse surrounding inclusion, however the shift in terminology has not necessarily been reflected in changes in practice. Research into successful inclusion to date has been driven by attempts to change the ethos of schools, however practical strategies have been found wanting. This essay explores research into teacher attitudes and beliefs, relationships with pupils and self-efficacy and the impact this can have on the outcomes of pupils with SEBD. It appears that Educational Psychologists EPs are ideally placed to support changes at this level through consultation, promoting pupil voice and training.

    While teachers have a huge impact on the inclusion of pupils with SEBD the research into parental or pupil attitudes is sadly lacking in this area. Forgiveness is a process of cognitive, behavioural and emotional change towards a transgression. It can be seen as a positive psychological resource to interpersonal harm. This essay examines the importance of forgiveness by examining why it is related to increased wellbeing and positive relationships. It then examines how the research on forgiveness can be related to children and adolescents.

    go site There has been much investigation on forgiveness and forgiveness interventions with adults, however the research on forgiveness with children and adolescents is still an emerging area. In order for schools to effectively promote forgiveness, an understanding of the developmental prerequisites of forgiveness and how children understand the construct of forgiveness is essential. There is currently limited research on the effectiveness of forgiveness education and intervention in schools.

    This essay will examine how schools can promote forgiveness at three different levels: a whole school preventative approach, targeted interventions and informal responses to transgressions. Future research is needed to determine the most effective method of fostering forgiveness in a school setting. Implications for Educational Psychologists are discussed. Originally introduced by John Bowlby, Attachment Theory proposes that an infant forms an attachment with their primary caregiver during a sensitive period of development and uses this individual as a secure base from which to explore the world Bowlby, ; Bowlby The attachment relationship that develops forms a template that the infant uses as a reference for future relationships with other individuals.

    If a child does not form the appropriate bond with their caregiver they are likely to develop an insecure attachment style. Insecure attachment has been shown to affect cognitive functioning e. Persuasive essays require students to use evidence and reasoning skills to persuade the reader that their point of view represents a logical conclusion. When sitting down to write this type of essay, students need to ensure that their sources strongly support the argument they want to make.

    These types of essays call on the student to examine two topics and draw conclusions about their similarities and differences. Students should use qualitative research for each topic and craft a new, logical, and interesting argument. As the name implies, cause and effect essays require students to examine a situation or event that caused something else to occur i. One example might include an individual experiencing trauma such as fighting in a war and then developing post-traumatic stress disorder. When crafting this type of essay, students must establish a strong relation between the cause and the effect.

    Learning how to properly attribute research articles and sources counts as one of the most important parts of becoming a psychologist. When students fail to acknowledge the ideas of others, they plagiarize by passing off someone else's work off as their own. Many students commit accidental plagiarism by failing to understand the rules of citations. If caught, students may face suspension or even expulsion, especially if it happens multiple times.

    Established in by the American Psychological Association, APA Style serves as the primary style guideline for individuals working within the behavioral and social sciences. Whether writing an academic paper or compiling an article or literature review, APA Style provides all of the information needed to correctly cite sources and avoid plagiarism.

    Unlike citation forms that emphasize authorship, APA style emphasizes the date of publication to help readers ascertain how recent the research and ideas appear in the available literature. Example: Author last name, author first initial. Title of publication. Location of publication: publisher Frankl, V. Man's search for meaning.